Genetic disorders are a significant contributor to foetal abnormalities, miscarriage, and IVF failures. However, pre-implantation genetic testing (PGT), which involves screening each embryo created through IVF for such illnesses, can frequently be used to discover genetic problems before implantation.
What is pre-implantation genetic testing (PGT)?
Preimplantation genetic testing (PGT) is an advanced technique used to find genetic flaws in embryos made by in vitro fertilization (IVF). With PGT, our fertility experts can choose embryos for transfer that are anticipated to be free of a particular genetic disorder or chromosome abnormalities.
Before becoming pregnant, this test allows patients to lower their future children's risk of inheriting a genetic condition.
Who can benefit from PGT?
Couples with a known family history of single-gene diseases such as thalassemia or cystic fibrosis, or who are carriers of these diseases:
√ Partners who have known genetic issues like translocation.
√ Couples whose entire exome screening and comprehensive genetic testing (CGT) revealed anomalies (WES). This is particularly helpful in consanguineous unions.
Several terms are used to describe this procedure. Still, there are fundamentally two types of tests:
1. PGT-A: Testing for aneuploidy, or an aberrant number of chromosomes, with the PGT-A method (for example, Down Syndrome). PGS, or preimplantation genetic screening, was the name given to this earlier.
2. PGT-M: Testing for a single (or monogenetic) illness, such as cystic fibrosis or thalassemia, is known as PGT-M. Previously, this was referred to as PGD or preimplantation genetic diagnosis.
1. The role of PGT-A
Embryos are graded before being selected for transfer in a typical IVF cycle, depending on how they appear under a microscope. The look of the embryo can offer clues about how likely it is to lead to a healthy pregnancy, but it is not ideal.
The best embryo for transfer may be chosen using preimplantation genetic testing for aneuploidy (PGT-A), which offers extra knowledge on the reproductive potential of the embryos.
Candidates to be evaluated for PGT-A are:
√ Patients who have experienced repeated pregnancy losses (miscarriages),
√ Patients who have numerous unexplained failed IVF cycles,
√ A past pregnancy or kid with specific chromosome abnormalities.
PGT-A can be used for any IVF cycle, but its advantages and disadvantages should be carefully explored with your doctor to see if it's the correct procedure.
2. The role of PGT-M
Some people choose IVF with PGT to lessen the possibility that their offspring would inherit a particular genetic disorder. Preimplantation genetic testing for monogenic illnesses is the name of this kind of PGT (PGT-M).
In rare situations, the patient may already be carrying a genetic disorder that they could pass on to their offspring, such as neurofibromatosis type 1 or Marfan syndrome.
In some situations, both partners in a couple might carry a recessive genetic disorder like cystic fibrosis or sickle cell anemia, or the person using the couple's eggs might carry an X-linked disorder like Fragile X syndrome.
Families with specific blood diseases that desire an embryo that might be an HLA match for a sibling or other family member can also use HLA matching.
How can MMC IVF help you with PGT testing?
PGT is a complex testing process. Hence, you must trust an authenticated center for the same. We at MMC IVF closely work with our patients and laboratory processes to develop personalized testing for their embryos. We ensure to reach the goal of predicting which embryos do not have any genetic condition or are at risk, enabling our physicians to transfer only those healthy embryos.
Consultour team to know how PGT can help you achieve an anomaly-free pregnancy and child.